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Paired Associates Learning (PAL)

Paired Associates Learning assesses visual memory and new learning.

Administration time

8 minutes

Task format

Boxes are displayed on the screen and are “opened” in a randomised order. One or more of them will contain a pattern. The patterns are then displayed in the middle of the screen, one at a time and the participant must select the box in which the pattern was originally located. If the participant makes an error, the boxes are opened in sequence again to remind the participant of the locations of the patterns. Increased difficulty levels can be used to test high-functioning, healthy individuals.

Outcome measures

Outcome measures include the errors made by the participant, the number of trials required to locate the pattern(s) correctly, memory scores and stages completed.  

Normative data 

Please contact us to discuss your normative data requirements. Please note, we do not recommend using normative data in place of a control group. 

When to use this test

We would recommend using this test to assess cognitive function in: